Der Unterschied zwischen Fruchtfolge und Fruchtwechsel.
The title of the chapter “Die Nachfolge Christi” () implies the title of a religious treatise, The Imitation of Christ, ascribed to Thomas à Kempis, , on the value of contemplation. It had almost as great an influence on Christianity as the Bible (Benet ). The chapter is so titled because the statue of Jesus drums on Oskar’s drum: Christ imitates Oskar. Grass overturns the. [phpBB Debug] PHP Warning: in file [ROOT]/includes/922922.pw on line preg_replace(): The /e modifier is no longer supported, use preg_replace_callback instead.
In a sentence, a singular subject is identified, which means it exists and has substance. It also has universal characteristics attributed by the predicate, indicating the different ways something can be, such as the designations of quality, relations, actions and classes. The function of naming individuals and saying what their predicating qualities are, reveals the inherent ontological aspect of language: When the listener responds by obeying, or agreeing, or expressing compassion, the intersubjective event of discourse is present RM 71— The twofold goals of language are sense and reference.
The function of predication expresses what the speaker says to someone and represents the first level of mutual understanding and meaning, sense. The proposition provides clues referring to the second aspect of language, reference. This is what the speaker is talking about, a world; it is the subjective dimension of meaning, which also refers back to the speaker. This dimension indicates clearly the distinction between semiotics, which operates at the level of sense, whereas semantics operates at the level of reference RM 74—75; IT 19— When discourse appears as written, important changes occur, however, even though it is based on the same fundamental traits just described.
Inscription changes the referential aspect of speaking. The being together situation of dialogue common to both speaker and listener disappears, and the reference to the speaker is not immediately knowable.
The subjectivity of the human voice and gesture becomes the material mark of language on paper: These changes result in the objectivity of the text where the meaning of the text and the world the text discloses comes to the forefront, surpassing the unknown intent of the author, and the time in which he wrote it.
Ricoeur shifts the emphasis in interpretation from a subjectivistic level to an ontological level by emphasizing the world of the text. The concept of the Hermeneutic Circle of Romanticism concerns a circle between two subjectivities, the reader and the author. The metaphor and the literary work are both forms of discourse based on the semantics of the sentence. Because a metaphor is a poetic work in miniature, the same process of understanding a metaphor may be extended to text interpretation.
It is the key to understanding a literary work. Ricoeur proposes a tension theory of metaphor—the guiding thread of his study. The production of metaphor produces a tension at three levels: Tension exists between the two interpretations: There is tension in the copula to be: The metaphorical process is that strategy of discourse which sets free the function of discovery. A semantic analysis of metaphor has to do with a change in meaning focused on the word at the level of the entire statement.
This occurs because of a unique contextual action where all the words in the statement contribute to the creation of new meaning. The meaning is new because of the interaction of semantic fields, which are combined in the statement for the first time.
The metaphor disrupts the normal strategy of discourse because of the connection of two literally contradictory terms. The concept of deviation from the norm, a fundamental characteristic of the metaphorical process, occurs as a result of joining two contradictory terms. A violation of the normal pertinence or relevance of the code of language occurs.
It is the reduction of the deviation in the metaphorical process that is important, not the deviation itself RM A new pertinence results because the poet reduces the deviation by changing the meaning of the word dead. The metaphor is not the deviation itself, but rather the reduction of the deviation. Resemblance is the reason for the unusual predication in the metaphorical process. The work of resemblance, bringing together two things, which previously were distant, is a discursive operation.
The process of resemblance is the perceiving and uniting similarity in spite of difference; the poet sees similarity in dissimilarity. New meaning is established because two formerly distant realities now appear closely related. The verbal and non-verbal aspect, between saying and seeing-as, intersect in the metaphorical statement. The seeing-as process is the link between tenor and vehicle: The seeing-as process creates tension between the literal contradiction of the terms, which produces the semantic clash, or the metaphorical twist RM — The idea of seeing similarity reveals the role of the image in the metaphorical process, and the pictorial quality of thought and language.
One therefore has an image of the sky as being dead, in a similar sense that a living thing can be dead. Henle describes the iconic quality of the metaphor as the ability to see an abstract idea as a concrete image.
The metaphoric process allows us to function in new situations because of our ability to see similarities and to perceive reality in different ways. It is also the reason for the extension of vocabulary RM — The theory of deviation between figurative and non-figurative language focuses on the concepts of space and distance in metaphorical predication.
Aristotle introduced the idea of space in his concept of the metaphor with his term, epiphora: This means the transfer of meaning from It indicates a shift in logical distance between meanings. Structural theorists study the concept of deviation, and focus on the moment where non-figurative language ends and figurative language begins.
This approach gives the notion of deviation a quantitative value and introduces statistical instrumentation into rhetoric RM — Weinrich maintains that the Bildspanne, the semantic closeness or distance between the two terms, determines the vitality of the metaphor. Metaphorical attribution begins and ends in the imagination.
The imagination of the author enables him to see resemblance in bizarre predication, and the imagination of the reader enables him to reconstruct and recognize it. Perceiving the resemblance causes the change in logical distance, the reduction of the deviation.
Imagination is a process, which schematizes metaphorical attribution In a metaphorical statement, attention is focused on the word or words where the change of meaning takes place. The naming game is an important function of language; it enables alphabetical and conceptual dictionaries to be compiled RM Yet within a sentence, the word depends on the context in which it appears for its precise meaning, while still maintaining its independence as a sign.
The word, therefore, actually mediates between semiotics and semantics. The metaphorical process is the inverse of the normal operation of discourse; it creates new statements and new meanings adding to the polysemy of words RM ; — The theory of the statement-metaphor interaction is therefore compatible with the theory of the word-metaphor substitution because of the dual function of the word RM The locus of metaphor is found in the copula in the notion of is and is not.
Und doch ist die Milch schwarz. This highlights further the role of the verb in the metaphorical process and points to the existential function of the metaphor stating the way things are RM The emotions play a significant role in the metaphorical process. The act of metaphorizing consists of an interaction between the intellect, the imagination and the emotions. Feeling accompanies and completes the role of the imagination, which enables a person to see resemblances, because the person interiorizes a thought and makes it his own.
A resemblance is not only seen, but also felt. Feelings are part of the verbal texture of a poem: Feelings have an ontological aspect because they are ways of being-there. In the logical order of language, a subject is normally described through the attribution of certain properties, or categories in the predicate, which generally determine how the subject can be RM 21— The metaphorical process of seeing sameness in difference, a category mistake, destroys the order of already established categories and creates a new order of new categories, new classifications.
The previously existing order was produced in the same way that metaphor changes it RM — The purpose of poetic language is to elicit images, which is the main focus of the study at hand.
The poetic work then becomes an object, like a sculpture. The metaphor is heuristic because it produces new information. By redescribing reality, a metaphor says the way things are in a new way. This points to the heuristic quality of the metaphor to instruct RM 22; — The entire context, the entire literary work, determines the meaning of the individual metaphors.
The interaction in a poetic work between individual metaphors and the entire text is exemplified by the notion of the intertwining of metaphors in a text, which refers back to the poet and elucidates his singular vision and style. The combination of metaphors raises discourse to the level of a poetic work RM , footnote The interplay between all the metaphors within the context of the poetic text, as well as the concept of tensive symbols, is the focus of this present study.
In the case of metaphor, it is essential that both domains belong to different superordinate domains. The primary locus of metaphor is in thought, and not language. A metaphorical expression is the linguistic activation of this conceptual mapping or projection. A listener or reader automatically understands an everyday metaphorical utterance. In a poetic expression, however, the imaginative mapping or combination of the two domains triggers an intuitive, spontaneous response: The contemporary theory of metaphor is revolutionary because it holds that most abstract, complex subject matter can be understood only by way of metaphor; we structure our real world via conventional metaphor and conversely comprehend abstract subject matter by way of concrete subject matter.
This ability is grounded in the body, and in knowledge gained from social and cultural experience, language and especially, the ability of the imagination to project concepts onto other concepts. At this point, the structural characteristics of the metaphorical statements are explained, revealing the chain of partial meanings. The process of explanation is similar to that of the natural sciences where external facts are empirically observed, verified and determined Ricoeur, IT 72—4.
His images and symbols are not easily understood because they are not directly related to a conventional reality. The feeling and mood of resignation permeates the novel. Therefore, his idea of Utopia is to return to the womb because he learns from experience and from observing the adults around him that it is useless to strive to live in a chaotic world. Through the creative use of verbs and the utilization of personification, familiar objects exercise their own autonomy.
Objects reveal an event, an underlying concept, or a special meaning. By interacting with things, Oskar deepens his knowledge and expands his experiences, which explains the highly sensual quality of the novel. Various studies on Grass identify fundamental themes, which reappear in his literary and artistic work, such as sexuality, sensuality, unsatisfied basic human needs, history as an absurd reoccurring process, and the loathsome, chaotic quality of reality.
The metaphorical statement is selected based on the discussion in the previous chapter. Each metaphorical statement is preceded by the context in which it appears. The significant words within the statement, the two referents, the tenor and vehicle, or the source and target domains are highlighted. In many instances more than just the two referents representing the unusual predication need to be addressed, because additional words in the statement deepen and enhance the metaphorical meaning.
In this chapter, the grammatical structure or form is identified and then explained. Repetition of some of the metaphors in demonstrating various classifications is unavoidable, because many are complex and conform to more than just one of the groupings undertaken.
Metaphors are identified according to form and structure by Werner Ingendahl and other scholars: Other scholars such as Werner Kallmeyer grade metaphors according to a typology: Walter Seiffert distinguishes metaphors according to their functions: A form of the verb to be joins both terms. Christine Brooke-Rose calls this type of metaphor the copula. In current metaphorical terminology, the two terms in a metaphorical statement have various designations, such as tenor and vehicle, associated commonplaces, subjects, referents, fields, and domains.
Barfield demonstrates his concept of visual metaphor in the symbol or the symbolic expression in which the form is simply B: Gerhard Kurz concludes that metaphors are grouped according to grammatical structures: Brooke-Rose employs the traditional surface language grammar method, consistent with verb metaphors and five types of noun metaphor.
Douglas Bergren identifies three epistemic principles in which comparisons occur: Ricoeur discusses the A: D structure of the proportional metaphor, or analogy. The role of the context is significant in discovering metaphorical meaning.
The following metaphors cited in various studies range in complexity. Most if not all are taken from poetry. These examples present little difficulty in interpretation when taken out of context: The metaphorical meanings of the entire poem or literary text enable the reader to understand the world-of-the-work. In the next section, the grammatical structures are presented in this order: The highlighted words in the statement demonstrate the specified structure only.
Even though the example may contain other metaphorical structures as well, these are not highlighted. The word in boldface type is the primary referent; the boldface italicized word or words indicate the secondary referent.
An explanation follows, which clarifies the meaning. Grass' Metaphorical Expressions Noun or Nominal Metaphors From the attic, Oskar observes his surroundings as a cramped, noisy network of streets, stairways and hallways: Oskar views the daunting maze through which he must maneuver. The attic offers him escape from the cruel antics of the children. On Tuesdays and Fridays of every week, the courtyard resonates with the sound of the housewives beating their carpets: Auf seiner Trommel kämpfte er gegen den Lärm an.
The racket of the carpetbeating is perceived as a hymn. Oskar accompanies Matzerath, his mother and Jan on an outing to the harbor. Man sah aber nichts mehr von dem Kopf, denn die Möwen hatten den eingepudert Eine frischgewaschene Wolke, die sich jeden Moment fein säuberlich in die Lüfte erheben konnte, laut schreiend einen Pferdekopf verhüllend, der nicht wieherte, sondern schrie He befriends Herbert Truczinski, a waiter in a tough, seaside bar who has fought in many barroom brawls.
His back is covered with many scars: Aber nachdem sie sich aus Liebe die Radieschen abgebissen hatten und der Glaube an den Gasmann zur Staatsreligion erklärt worden war, blieb nach Glaube und vorweggenommener Liebe nur noch der dritte Ladenhüter des Korintherbriefes: The virtue of hope is described as useless dead stock.
This metaphor contributes to the overall pattern of light and darkness, of goodness and evil in the form of Goethe and Rasputin. Oskar, Matzerath and the other fearful residents of the apartment building are in the basement under the watchful eyes of the Russian soldiers.
Oskar hands Matzerath the Parteiabzeichen, the pin, which Matzerath impulsively puts in his mouth in order to hide it from the soldiers: Matzerath, the avid cook so focused on food, chokes on the party pin, seen as an unwieldy piece of candy. Oskar and Ulla resume their jobs as artist models after the summer break.
The new abstract art consists of lines, curves and angles—absurdities. Der neue Stil does not express the essential, intrinsic qualities, the Gegenständlichkeit, that Oskar believes he and Ulla possess: This utterance contains two noun metaphors: Ulla is seen as a muse, and the modern paintings are seen as wallpaper, according to Oskar, lacking concrete and recognizable objectivity.
Noun-composite Metaphors Oskar perceives the people in his environment, the Kleinbürger, as animals, according to their outward likeness. This also points to Oskar, the impersonal outsider, the observer who creates distance from the other characters.
Markus, the toyshop owner, is seen as a dog, satisfied with leftover crumbs from Jan and Agnes relationship: The following noun-composite metaphors describe personality traits, or the nature of characters in the novel: Bronskiaugen ; Oskar and his ability to shatter glass with his scream, Glastöter ; Ohrfeigengesicht ; Mittelmeeraugen ; Bernsteinaugen ; Ringkämpfernatur, Fünfmännerweiber ; Birnenkopf ; Bastlerhirn, Bindfadenknotengeburten ; Luftwaffenriesen ; Mittelmeerstimme, Mittelmeermund ; Blitzmädchen ; Widerkäuerberuf ; Strichaugen ; Kohleprofessor, Rauschebart, Zigeunerkuchen, Kohleorgien, Kohlewüterich ; Baukastenkönig ; Musensegen ; Ostereiermaler, Musenmund ; Maleraugen ; Knotengebilde, Knotengeburt Other noun-composite metaphors depict characteristics of situations and events: Eintopfsonntag ; parishioners confess a string of sins to the priest: Oskar describes the woolen harness which Fräulein Kauer, the kindergarten teacher knits in order to keep the children in a line: The description of the harness in vivid language has the same color red, which is associated with the devil, reminding Oskar of his close relationship with Satan.
Oskar enters the toyshop just as Markus is begging Agnes to run away with him to London: Grass seems to play games with the words describing the jumping jacks: Hoping to start anew, every Saturday afternoon, summer and winter, she walks to church with Oskar in hand and confesses her sins to Father Wiehnke in the confessional. During the streetcar ride back to the store after a visit with Jan, she contemplates her guilt: Agnes confesses her sins regularly to the priest.
Nevertheless, she is unable to put an end to her weekly visits with Jan. While the Protestants observe the day by attending church, the Catholics prepare for the Easter holiday by cleaning and beating carpets: As Oskar observes the statues of Jesus and John the Baptist, he notices striking similarities between his own looks and those of the statues: Each scar can be identified according to a particular event involving a brawl with a sailor from a different country.
Oskar entices Herbert out of unemployment to work with him as a team of burglars. Their evil deeds are brought to an end soon because they are unable to fence the stolen objects. All the previous encounters with fizzpowder between Oskar and Maria lead to the following incident: The packet of fizzpowder loses its initial innocent connotation.
Thus, Oskar experiences his first sexual act. Oskar interrupts Maria and Matzerath making love. Trying in vain to win her back, he offers her a package of fizzpowder, which she rejects by kicking him. A brutal fistfight ensues between them: His pain and anguish reflect his powerlessness and unending helplessness.
His attempts to win Maria back have failed and she rejects him. Oskar narrates how Greengrocer Greff describes the potato to a customer: The potato is given human intellectual and sexual qualities, indicating its importance. Having been rejected by Maria, Oskar turns his undivided attention to Lina Greff and describes the progress of his sexual prowess: Oskar holte das Letzte aus der Greffschen heraus und blieb dennoch unzufrieden, wenn nicht unbefriedigt, wie es sich für einen echten Künstler gehört Despite his success, however, Oskar remains unsatisfied.
Weder gelang es mir, mit unermüdlichen Schrei The senses of smell and taste are highlighted in one word. He retaliates with his first glass-shattering scream, breaking the glass of the family clock. Oskar is content only when given a new drum in exchange for the old one: Oskar will therefore attend a public school. Religion is scheduled on Thursdays: The adjectives refer to the theological teachings of the Catholic Church, for which Oskar bears a distinct hatred. Although Gretchen longs for a baby, her husband ignores her sexually.
After Oskar turns an orderly Nazi Party demonstration in the Maiwiese to utter chaos with the help of his drum from under the rostrum, he toddles off to a Sunday afternoon dinner at home: Kristallnacht occurs in November, during the season of Advent, the time of preparation for Christmas.
Oskar is returning from the toystore carrying new drums while pious women and very ugly girls distribute religious material and collect money: Und so glaubten sie an die alleinseligmachende Gasanstalt, die mit steigenden und fallenden Gasometern Schicksal versinnbildlichte und zu Normalpreisen eine Adventszeit veranstaltete, an deren vorauszusehende Weihnacht zwar viele glaubte, deren anstrengende Feiertage aber nur jene überlebten, für die der Vorrat an Mandeln und Nüssen nicht ausreichen wollte—obgleich alle geglaubt hatten, es sei genug da — The season of Advent is a cultural and religious symbol, a time during which Christians prepare spiritually and culturally for Christmas.
The focus of this metaphor is the annihilation of the Jews in the gas chambers, symbolized also by the nuts, abundantly used in baking; almonds also symbolize the smell of gas. The target is the Catholic Church: The Church, seen as a gas company, and its believers are held responsible for the atrocities.
The cool, quiet interior of the church is seen as a belly, with the human capability of breathing. Oskar describes the frenzied nature of Professor Kuchen, who supervises the students at the Academy of Art awaiting his next instruction: Black dust seems to be emanating from him. Adjective-composite metaphors also vividly describe the colors of certain objects: Oskar sets about the task of endearing himself to her because Gretchen is his only hope of getting some kind of an education, since he has no desire to attend a formal school: Gretchen finally opens her heart to Oskar in the same way she unravels a skein of yarn to create lovingly a knitted object.
Agnes usually leaves Oskar with Marcus at his toyshop during her usual visits with Jan in the city. Oskar observes her uneasiness when Marcus, weeping on bended knee, begs her to run away with him, even if she despises him.
She rejects his proposal because of Jan: Markus is rebuked and his changed physical demeanor, his hasty, jerky bow seems like the action of a jackknife. The noun Klappmesser is transformed into a verb, in effect perceiving Marcus as an object, deprived of his passionate feelings. The drum is instrumental in helping Oskar to remember and to communicate his experiences. Oskar prevents Jan from running away from the impending attack on the Polish Post Office. As they make their way to the heavily guarded post office, the church bells peal: The verb bronzieren meaning coated with bronze, is used creatively and visually.
One sees the shiny movement of the bells as they peal, and is reminded of the ancient function of bells, to alarm the villagers of impending danger. At Christmas, Oskar learns to his dismay that he has not received the new drum he so desperately needs: Oskar is so infuriated, he screams out in protest and anger, displaying his power.
His voice becomes a sharp tool that he uses to selectively destroy the decorations on the Christmas tree. The character of the watchmaker is seen as resurrecting dead clocks, pointing to the sentient quality of objects.
The artists receive fiery directions from Professor Kuchen: Sentence Metaphors Oskar applies the destructive quality of his voice to cutting holes in shop windows, thereby tempting passersby to steal from the shop. His sights, however, are on Jan Bronski. Oskar displays his evil nature: Herbert has a new job as a security guard at the Maritime Museum, where the notorious wooden figurehead from an old Florentine galleon is on display.
Niobe supposedly caused the death of many a man who crossed her path: Human qualities are attributed to the wooden figure of Niobe. Men are helpless who find themselves in her commanding and destructive presence. Oskar and Jan are barricaded in the Polish Post Office building during the attack. He angrily asks himself, why he should care about Poland. The two vehicles are seen as two insatiable, spoiled ladies, sightseeing and the castle is really the post office.
Oskar feels guilty of having lured Jan to the Polish Post Office where Jan eventually meets his death. Oskar attempts to eradicate this event from his memory by incessant, furious drumming: Erst Mitte Dezember verloren die Beschuldigungen des mir anhängenden lackierten und rotgeflammten Gewissens an Überzeugungskraft: Der Lack zeigte Haarrisse, blätterte ab.
He eventully destroys it hoping to forget and to rid himself of his shame. Es zeigten sich einige recht flüssig, wie eingeschult tanzende Paare. Bevor die Paare sich wieder im Tanz fanden, wurden kleine Gegenstände weitergereicht: The British and American influence during this post-war time period is evident in the language of the marketeers in the reference to the ingredient of yeast in the fermentation of wine, for which the Rhine valley is noted, and the reference to a cultural phenomenon, Feierabend, a time of leisure after working hours.
Der Falter schnatterte, als hätte er es eilig, sein Wissen los zu werden, als käme ihm nicht mehr Zeit zu für spätere Plauderstunden mit Lichtquellen, als wäre das Zwiegespräch zwischen Falter und Glühbirne in jedem Fall des Falters letzte Beichte und nach jener Art von Absolution, die Glühbirnen austeilen, keine Gelegenheit mehr für Sünde und Schwärmerei The moth and the light bulb seem to be engaged in a conversation where the moth hurriedly confesses its sins to the lightbulb and receives absolution.
Oskar feels secure when he seeks refuge under the table from the chaos in the room during his fourth birthday party: Oskar typically runs-for-cover, seeking escape and refuge from the chaos of his life by hiding under things. In this instance, the table and cloth are seen in nautical terms as the sheltered side away from the wind. Oskar reflects upon the many paintings throughout history depicting various battles: The paintings depict the constant history of war on Polish soil and the squadrons express the feeling of melancholy.
In the Maritime Museum, Oskar and Herbert taunt Niobe by taking part in silly antics under her watchful eye: The figure of Niobe is referred to as a piece of wood having the human quality of sight and the ability to react. Weder gelang es mir, mit unermüdlichem Schrei das Tapetenmuster zu löschen, noch mit zwei langgezogenen, auf und ab schwellenden, sich steinzeitlich mühsam aneinander reibenden Tönen Wärme bis Hitze zu erzeugen, endlich den Funken springen zu lassen, der nötig gewesen wäre, die zundertrockenen, tabakrauchgewürzten Gardinen vor den beiden Fenstern des Wohnzimmers zu dekorativen Flammen werden zu lassen Oskar is unable to create the fire with his scream that would burn away the patterns on the wallpaper; he is unable to create tones that would rub together in the same manner that our primitive ancestors could create heat by rubbing together flints.
The structure of this metaphor is A: B not as C: Der Umgang mit Jan Bronski Herbert is laid to rest in Langfuhr cemetary. Oskar will heute noch nicht so recht an Vorzeichen glauben. Da starb mein Freund Herbert Truczinski an einer Brustwunde, die ihm ein hölzernes Weib zugefügt hatte. Das Weib starb nicht. Das wurde versiegelt und im Museumskeller, angeblich wegen Restaurationsarbeit, aufbewahrt.
Doch kann man das Unglück nicht einkellern. Kurt destroys all the gifts he received at his third birthday party, including a whistling top and the whip. Hoping to perpetuate his own drumming, Oskar presents Kurt with a drum.
Kurt responds cruelly to Oskar by whipping him into submission, reducing him to hopeless tears: Kurt displays the same brutality as Cain. He treats Oskar just as he did the whistling top. Oskar seems to become a top, crying and turning in the same manner the top whistled and spun.
Stephen Pepper defines root metaphors as a group of metaphors, which describe one and the same subject Ricoeur, RM It is a manner of metaphorical functioning wherein a cluster or an array of metaphors function by way of intersignification: One metaphor, in effect, calls for another The network engenders what we can call root metaphors, which This technique is the rhetorical figure, variation: The purpose of this characteristic is to impress upon the reader the importance of the event being described Wagenbach The use of Redensarten is another stylistic feature.
Idiomatic expressions continue to function in a special way at the cultural level even though they have been embedded in a language Sowinski The stylistic traits are root metaphors, which are paragraphs containing several metaphorical expressions pointing to one meaning or theme; personification and names or naming-metaphors follow.
The cultural grouping, including idiomatic expressions, cultural observances, and religious symbols and beliefs concludes this study. Root Metaphors In this style of metaphorical functioning, several metaphorical utterances are used to express one concept, one theme, one event; one metaphor calls for another and each predicate is from a different category than the others.
Oskar describes what his hospital bed means to him: Mir ist es sogar mehr: Oskar holds his family photo album in high esteem: Ich hüte einen Schatz Was täte ich ohne dieses alles deutlich machende, offen zu Tage liegende Familiengrab? Was auf dieser Welt, welcher Roman hätte die epische Breite eines Fotoalbums? Oskar accepts a job as a model for the art academy and he narrates how Professor Kuchen propounds his definition of art: The structures vary but the theme is the same. As Koljaiczek rides the logging raft down the river, the countryside is described as a scene of recurring battles: Links und rechts lag hinter den Deichen immer dasselbe, wenn nicht flache, dann gehügelte, schon abgeerntete Land.
Hecken, Hohlwege, eine Kesselkuhle mit Ginster, plan zwischen Einzelgehöften, geschaffen für Kavallerieattacken, für eine links im Sandkasten einschwenkende Ulanendivision, für über Hecken hetzende Husaren, für die Träume junge Rittmeister, für die Schlacht, die schon dagewesen, die immer wieder kommt, für das Gemälde. The countryside was created especially as the historic stage for heroic battles and especially for the painting, which depicts the battle in detail.
On cold, wintry days, hot bricks are pushed under the skirts of the women to help keep them warm. Sucht er Vergessen, Heimat, das endliche Nirwana?
After his mother has died, Oskar reflects upon their closeness and similarity; this paragraph contains many utterances, which express his feelings of need and dependence upon his mother and her loyal support for him: Mama ging mir manchmal verloren, aber ihr Finder ging mit ihr.
Wenn ich Scheiben zersang, handelte Mama mit Kitt. Sie setzte sich manchmal ins Unrecht, obgleich es ringsherum Stühle genug gab. Mama fürchtete die Zugluft und machte denoch ständig Wind. Sie lebte auf Spesen und zahlte ungerne Steuern. Ich war die Kehrseite ihres Deckblattes Oskar waits for Herbert outside the museum where they eat the lunch Mutter Truczinski has packed for Herbert.
Herbert then returns to the museum. Oskar remains outside and describes the lively play of the afternoon light and its effect on the museum: The metaphors depict the passage of time. The afternoon creeps, tumbles, rides, eats, plops, swings, and traps. Oskar notices the large assortment of toys including a red and white tin drum.
While Kobyella tries to shake the terror and cowardice out of Jan, the nursery is hit with the shelling and Kobyella is mortally wounded: The rocking horse seems to run off, but the scattering of the toy Uhlan soldiers about the room is reminiscent of the real soldiers that fought and died in previous battles on Polish soil.
Oskar visits Klepp, another boarder in the rooming house and when the conversation leads to music, Oskar is driven to fetch the drum from his room that he has not played. He finally begins to drum again and he begins to tell Klepp his entire life story: Personification The act of personifying is a metaphoric action closely related to mythologizing. Since the language of the primitive thinker had few abstract words, his expressions were drawn from human experiences.
Oskar narrates how he and Herbert cavort fearlessly in the Maritime Museum under the watchful gaze of the figurehead, Niobe; he is convinced that objects possess a sentient quality: Es ist nicht etwa der liebe Gott, der alles sieht! Oskar recognizes that his drum is a source of communication for him.
He needs it to learn his life story so that he can narrate it: The drum is endowed with a human quality, the power of memory and communication. Oskar is helpless without it. Oskar observes the bell tower of a nearby church while awaiting Herbert: Oskar describes the quiet day in September as he, Jan and the janitor, Kobyella, experience a break, a moment of stillness in the shelling of the Polish Post Office: The sun is seen as a painter; the situation in the room is so intense and quiet that the atmosphere possesses a quality of sensitivity.
After one of the firings on the post office, Kobyella is seriously hurt. Jan clumsily tends to him then tries to nurse his own very minor wounds, which have stopped bleeding: He decides to blame it on his ignorance, which seems to be the loophole many use to excuse their guilt: Doch wie jedermann halte ich mir an Tagen, da mich ein unhöfliches und durch nichts aus dem Zimmer zu weisendes Schuldgefühl in die Kissen meines Anstaltsbettes drückt, meine Unwissenheit zugute, die damals in Mode kam und noch heute manchem als flottes Hütchen zu Gesicht steht Oskar has decided to accept the invitation of Bebra and Roswitha to join their theater at the front.
He bids his neighborhood and neighbors adieu: Warum blieb er zwischen all den verdunkelten, an den Luftschutz glaubenden Häusern vor einem verdunkelten, luftschutzgläubigen Haus stehen?
Even the apartment building seems to be in deep sleep, safe and sound, protected from air raids. Human qualities of desire and will are attributed to the closet. The meanings of these names are readily comprehensible for the most part. Oskar becomes acquainted with the drumming sound of the moth on the lightbulb at his birth: In the interaction between Oskar and Maria with the fizzpowder, he remembers what Maria called him: Oskar speaks of the growing power of his destructive voice: Bruno names the figures he fashions from string, which represent minute details of persons, places and events that Oskar has included in his narration: It is not a restaurant because nothing to eat is offered: The people of this generation are unable to express genuine sorrow over the catastrophes committed during the war.
Beliefs and symbols of the Catholic religion are especially highlighted. Sayings are in some instances taken literally, at other times, turned completely around. Because familiar cultural practices, religious observances and literary symbols are associated with the atrocities of the Nazi era, they are distorted, taking on a negative, profane connotation. They are presented as the foundation and cause of the Nazi terror.
The title of the chapter, Karfreitagskost, and other sentences throughout the chapter, connect a sacred, religious observance to an actual grotesque event in the novel. On his first day of school, Oskar encounters Sütterlinschrift, an old style of German writing, originally having nothing to do with Nazism. It becomes associated with the authority of the school and with documents and other brutal aspects of Nationalsocialism Cepl-Kaufmann Chanterelle mushrooms are favored in the northern part of Germany: The detailed description of the dinner highlights the focus on food.
Inside the Maritime Museum on the second floor, Oskar and Herbert await the afternoon sunlight and its effects on the objects and paintings. The bells chime simultaneously with the appearance of the afternoon light. The ancient bells seem to be recording the historical passage of time: The German people were obligated to donate to the Nazi charity Winterhilfe.
In doing so, he loses weight and requires medical and psychological assistance. He tries drumming on the Sammelbüchse, the tin in which Alfred collects donations for the Winterhilfe: Kleine Spende fürs WHW! This is not the communication Oskar wants to hear. It is essential that Oskar find another source to fill his desparate need for a tin drum. A typical scene in northern Germany is the sight of picturesque nests, which storks build on the rooftops. Oskar describes the battle scenes of Poland at war depicted in paintings.
Buildings in northern Germany are characteristically constructed with bricks. Bebra and Roswitha invite Oskar to join their front-line theater. As he rides with them in their official car through Danzig, the Prussian characteristics of discipline and order are the focus: The trees are standing smartly, soldier-like, at attention.
Throughout the novel, the symbol of the Polish flag is particularly significant; the white and red colors of the Polish flag are used to express feelings of patriotism because of the many times in history the country has been divided and at war. Koljaiczek is evading the local authorities because of a problem he created at a sawmill. Oskar explains why Koljaiczek is using the papers of a dead man in applying for work: Idiomatic Expressions These types of metaphors express intimate characteristics of a particular language and people.
An aphorism enlivens the next scene, highlighting the colors of the Polish flag. The manager of the sawmill beats Koljaiczek with the slats he painted red and white: The white and red slats of the fence signify the colors of the Polish flag; by setting fire to the sawmill, the red flames and the white sawmill unite in a symbolic reunification of Poland.
Because of the incident at the sawmill, Joseph Koljaiczek is involved in a desperate escape from the local police amidst chaos in the harbor. He jumps into the water, seeking refuge under the floating logs among the barges: With his first drum in hand, Oskar walks up and down the stairs of his four-story apartment building and along the streets of his neighborhood, drumming incessantly.
The infuriated adults finally try to take it away from him: Oskar describes his glass-shattering scream, which he inflicts for the first time when the adults try to confiscate his drum: The building is under attack from the Home Guard. The halls are empty except for Oskar: The proverb is transposed. The only promising event this particular morning has to offer is a bullet. The ornate style of German script, the Sütterlin script, is associated with the Nazi era, giving it a negative connotation: Sütterlinschrift kroch bösartig spitzig und in den Rundungen falsch, weil ausgestopft, über die Schultafel, kreidete jene, den Anfang eines neuen Lebensabschnitte markierende Inschrift Schon damals, da ich Sütterlinschrift zwar durchschauen, aber nichtlesen konnte, wollte die Doppelschlinge des Sütterlin M, mit dem die Inschrift begann, tückisch und nach Hanf riechend, mich ans Schafott gemahnen The script is associated with atrocities of war, and the smell of rope and the double loop of the letter M remind Oskar of the hangman.
Playing the familiar card game Skat is generally thought of as normal recreation. But the game is given a different connotation in Bt; it is a mode of escape and refuge from political responsibility and turmoil: Jan, Matzerath and Agnes frequently play the game: The game characterizes the nature of the Kleinbürger, their lack of interest in social and political matters Cepl-Kaufmann Their grotesquely mutilated bodies display the ravages of war as they play the cardgame, oblivious to their situation and what it represents.
During the defense of the Polish Post Office Jan frantically pulls out a deck of cards from his pocket. He and Oskar prop up a dying postal worker and force him to join them in a game of Skat.
After the third player dies, Jan builds a house of cards: Als uns die Strandpromenade nach Zoppot führte, kam uns der Sonntag entgegen.
The observance of Sunday is personified. One seems literally to bump up against the spirit of people enjoying Sunday outings in the Castle Park, in the streetcars, in the cafes, at the beaches. It was initiated during this time period to encourage the people to save money, which was to be given to the State.
The observance of Good Friday during the Lenten season is a significant day for Catholics, a day of fasting and abstaining from meat; fish is eaten instead. The title of the chapter Karfreitagskost , highlights the significance of the fish, a Christian symbol of faith and purity and a metaphor for Jesus Christ, demonstrated especially in this example by the connection to religious and liturgical language: Aal von deinem Aal, denn Aal wird zu Aal.
The concept fish has also a phallic connotation Jobes ; Cirlot Niobe, a figure in Greek mythology, is a favorite theme in literature and art. Aeschylus and Sophocles wrote tragedies based upon the legend and Ovid described it at length in his Metamorphoses. Niobe, the daughter of Tantalus, is proud of having seven sons and seven daughters. She boasts of her superiority over Leto, the mother of only two children, Apollo and Artemis. She is turned into a rock and when seen from a distance, the rock appears to be weeping when the rays of the sun melt the winter snow on her peak Diller This leads to the contention that a church-going people of faith who believe in Christmas are gullible enough to believe also in the principles of National Socialism: Aber nachdem sich der Glaube an den Weihnachtsmann als Glaube an den Gasmann herausgestellt hatte, versuchte man es, ohne auf die Reihenfolge des Korintherbriefes zu achten, mit der Liebe Aber nachdem sie sich aus Liebe die Radieschen abgebissen hatte und der Glaube an den Gasmann zur Staatsreligion erklärt worden war, blieb nach Glaube und vorweggenommener Liebe nur noch der dritte Ladenhüter des Korintherbriefes: The same kind of people dating back in history to Saul and others masquerading as Santa Claus are like butchers, who stuff the sausages with beliefs like faith, hope and love: It had almost as great an influence on Christianity as the Bible Benet Grass overturns the connotation of the treatise.
In the defense of the Polish Post Office, Oskar ruminates disdainfully on the recurrence of war on Polish soil and on those who presently engage in that activity: Was hatte meine Trommel mit dem Blute Polens gemeinsam!
Mochten sie ihre Akten und Löschblätter mit dem Saft färben! The familiar and polite forms of the word du in the German language are highlighted when Oskar refers to his male organ.
He uses the polite form of the verb, thereby creating the feeling of distance and respect. The city of Danzig is burning again senselessly for the hundredth time as a result of war. The damage and loss caused by the fires is described: Das war aber nicht der erste Brand der Stadt Danzig In der Fleischergasse roch es nach verbranntem Sonntagsbraten. Im Stadttheater wurden Brandstifters Träume, eine doppelsinniger Einakter, uraufgeführt In der Milchkannengasse kochte die Milch über Even the observance of Sunday in the form of Sonntagsbraten cannot escape the flames.
The familiar connotation of a muse, who in Greek mythology was a source of inspiration for a poet or artist, is reversed and perverted in the person of Ulla. Auch Ulla fühlte sich als Modell wohl. So war sie auch diesem Maler, der sie rein optisch nie als Modell benutzte, im gewissen Sinne eine Muse; denn nur jene Ohrfeigen, die er ihr austeilte, verliehen seiner Malerhand die wahre schöpferische Potenz Anders verhielt es sich mit dem Maler Raskolnikoff, der mit Ulla, ohne ihr nahe zu treten, intimsten Umgang pflegte Ulla is beaten by Lanke and sexually abused by Raskolnikov.
The concept of the muse is overturned; Ulla is really an anti-Muse, an anti-Madonna. In this study, all the numbers displayed in the tables and bar graphs are approximate. In the entire novel, about metaphors are identified. The most prominent grammatical structures are verbal, nominal and noun-composite metaphors. The predominant stylistic features are personification and root metaphors, or the rhetorical technique, variation.
The bar graphs and tables presented in this study function mainly as models to demonstrate how the results of the topics can be depicted. These models, too, are metaphors Black, Models — In scientific language, the model is essentially a heuristic instrument, because it redescribes one interpretation by replacing it with a new, more adequate interpretation.
The model extends language in a visual way through metaphorical usage. It is a method equal to explanation Ricoeur, RM — The number of metaphorical occurrences of each entry is greater than the number of metaphors because in many instances, besides having a particular grammatical structure, a metaphor may conform to other headings as well, such as a particular stylistic trait, theme, and tensive symbol.
The results of the studies undertaken regarding the grammatical structures and the stylistic features, are represented in the following bar graphs, and classified under the separate headings Book I, II, and III. Grammatical and Stylistic Characteristics Book 1: Grammatical and Stylistic Chatacteristics Book 2: Grammatical and Stylistic Characteristics Book 3: This is followed by a task where metaphors appearing frequently throughout the entire narrative are identified as concrete images or tensive symbols.
The third and final analysis demonstrates how the dominant themes of the metaphors are classified according to one word. The International contains three main sections: This is significant because the categories are not only modes of mental representation, or concepts, according to Aristotle, but also actual modes of being, ways in which anything can be said to be.
To know a thing is to be able to understand what is said about it. Saying something about a thing occurs in the form of a sentence Wheelwright, Aristotle xxx—xxxii. This process of predication is the starting point of the metaphorical process, which deviates from the basic procedure of logically saying the way things are in a statement.
Their lexical relationships can be observed also. Scholars such as Weinrich, Cohen and Ullmann discuss in their studies the significance of distance in determining a vital metaphor, and the measurement of rhetorical language. This conceptual analysis explores the possibility of concretely measuring the distance between categories, or domains. The procedure is as follows: The following metaphorical statement demonstrates the procecedure: Although family and friends visit Oskar frequently, he values his solitude, confined to his bed in a mental hospital.
He sees solitude as an object woven between white, metal bars: The italicized words and the word in bold-faced type are used metaphorically in the statement: Stille is the primary subject, and the italicized words represent the secondary subject.
Between is number Space, under the subentry Interposition. Based on the context of the statement, chaste is the closest meaning, number The number is then located under Class Eight: Volition and under the subheading Voluntary Action.
Space, under the subentry Dimensions. Space, under the subheading Motion. The obvious conclusion is that, of the five words, two are classified under the category Space, one under Volition, and the other under Affections. This procedure was followed with each metaphorical statement identified.
The total number of isolated significant words in the metaphorical utterances of Bt is approximately In the second table, the figures show which subentries occur most frequently, and under which main Class of Categories the subentries are grouped: Classes of Categories VII.
Categories of Concepts Book 1: Categories of Concepts Book 2: Categories of Concepts Book 3: Tensive language is poetic and alive and reflects the ceaseless tensions, which the human person experiences in the everyday struggle between opposing forces.
Poetic language speaks indirectly, evoking another meaning which the utterance does not express literally. It exhibits interplay between various levels of meaning Symbols appearing frequently throughout the entire narrative contribute significantly to the overall meaning of the work. Wheelwright describes how a metaphor is integrated in the literary work and how it functions symbolically: It is necessary to mention the stable and repeatable character of a symbol; for when an image is employed as metaphor only once, in a unique flash of insight, it cannot accurately be said to function symbolically.
It acquires a symbolic nature when, with whatever modifications, it undergoes or is considered capable of undergoing recurrence A tensive symbol creates a pattern that is woven throughout the entire literary work.
There are five ascending levels of classification according to Wheelwright: A symbol may be the presiding image of a particular literary work. In this case, it has not been used before in literature. A symbol may be personally significant to the author.
It may recur in other works of the writer. A writer may reuse effectively a symbol from another writer in a new and original context. A symbol may have significance to a particular culture or community, and also to a religion or sect.
Archetypal symbols pertain to all of humanity in general. The concept of the tensive symbol seems to be an expansion of the objective correlative concept, originating with Schopenhauer, as previously discussed: Wheelwright defines the tensive symbol as a way of metaphorizing.
In this study, the five classifications are designated as A through E respectively. Wie sie mit den Schenkeln Des Tigers Leib inbrünstlich umarmt!
Liebesmetapher Wie sie, bis auf die Mähn herabgebeugt, Hinweg die Luft trinkt lechzend, die sie hemmt! Trinkmetapher Sie fliegt, wie von der Senne abgeschossen: Bogenmetapher Numidsche Pfeile sind nicht hurtiger! Pfeilmetapher Das Heer bleibt keuchend, hinter ihr, wie Köter, Wenn sich ganz aus die Dogge streckt, zurück!
Jagdmetapher —23 Classifying metaphors according to one theme is beneficial because the meaning of a metaphorical expression can be encapsulated in one or two words. Oskar rejects living in the chaotic world of his family and neighbors and he seeks refuge by confining himself to his pure, white hospital bed.
Just as with tensive symbols, some metaphors may express more than one theme. Where appropriate, the tensive symbol will be demonstrated also. Oskar maintains that objects are able to bear witness to our acts: This point of view enables Oskar to distance himself from his neighbors. The nature of objects is described in vivid, precise language: Jedenfalls sagte meine Trommel Drum is a tensive symbol classified B, personally significant to Grass.
It is the symbol occurring most frequently in the novel, signifying communication. Mit diesem Wissen ist es dann ein Leichtes, den Gemüseanbau für das neue Jahr zu planen. Dabei müssen Sie eigentlich nur die folgenden Regeln einhalten:. Der Nährstoffbedarf der verschiedenen Gemüsearten unterscheidet sich zum Teil erheblich.
Daher teilen Gärtner die Pflanzen in Starkzehrer , Mittelzehrer und Schwachzehrer ein — wobei sich die Zusammensetzung dieser Gruppen je nach Quelle leicht unterscheidet. Im vierten Jahr wird eine Gründüngung eingesät, danach beginnt man wieder mit Starkzehrern. Neben dem Nährstoffbedarf spielen auch die verwandtschaftlichen Verhältnisse der Pflanzen eine Rolle. Grundsätzlich sollte man nicht in zwei aufeinanderfolgenden Jahren an derselben Stelle Pflanzen aus derselben Familie anbauen.
Raps und Senf beispielsweise sind als Kreuzblütler für den Gemüsegarten grundsätzlich nicht die beste Wahl, da sie die Verbreitung der Kohlhernie fördern.
Ein jährlicher Fruchtwechsel lässt sich mit der Einteilung der Gemüsebeete im Stil des klassischen Bauerngartens ganz leicht realisieren.
Starkzehrer, Mittelzehrer, Schwachzehrer und Gründüngung rotieren im Jahresrhythmus von einem Beet zum nächsten. Bei der unterjährigen Fruchtfolge achtet man vorwiegend darauf, dass Gemüsearten aus derselben Pflanzenfamilie nicht nacheinander im selben Beet wachsen. Rettiche beispielsweise zählen wie alle Kohlarten, Kohlrabi, Radieschen und Kresse zu den Kreuzblütlern. Sie sollten nicht dort angebaut werden, wo vorher winterharter Rosenkohl kultiviert wurde. Eine Fruchtfolge aus verschiedenen Stark-, Mittel oder Schwachzehrern ist hingegen weniger problematisch.
Bei richtiger Fruchtfolge kommt man auch auf ärmeren Boden ohne Mineraldünger aus. Als Grunddüngung dient jedes Jahr im Frühjahr eine Kompostgabe: Auch bei rein organischer Düngung gilt: Sollte sich herausstellen, dass Ihr Boden mit Phosphat überversorgt ist — wie die meisten Gemüsegärten in Deutschland — empfiehlt es sich, die Kompost gaben zu reduzieren und stattdessen mit Hornmehl zu düngen.
Startseite Gemüsegarten Fruchtfolge und Fruchtwechsel im Gemüsegarten. Fruchtfolge und Fruchtwechsel im Gemüsegarten von Folkert Siemens. Der Unterschied zwischen Fruchtfolge und Fruchtwechsel Die beiden Begriffe Fruchtfolge und Fruchtwechsel werden zwar häufig synonym verwendet, bezeichnen aber zwei unterschiedliche Vorgehensweisen:
He longs to seek the ultimate refuge in the womb from a cruel and brutal world Botheroyd 43— The naming game is an important function of language; it enables alphabetical and conceptual dictionaries to be compiled RM
A, novel; B, personal to author; C, previous symbol used in a creative way; D, pertaining to a culture, religion or sect; E, archetypal, pertaining to all of humanity. Metaphoric analysis, therefore, is an effective method of literary interpretation.